Wyndham Lewis Bibliography Format

Wyndham Lewis, in full Percy Wyndham Lewis, (born November 18, 1882, on a yacht near Amherst, Nova Scotia, Canada—died March 7, 1957, London, England), English artist and writer who founded the Vorticist movement, which sought to relate art and literature to the industrial process.

About 1893 Lewis moved to London with his mother after his parents separated. At age 16 he won a scholarship to London’s Slade School of Fine Art, but he left three years later without completing his course. Instead, he went to Paris, where he practiced painting and attended lectures at the Sorbonne. While in Paris, Lewis became interested in Cubist and Expressionist art; he was one of the first British artists to do so.

On his return to London in 1908, Lewis began to write satirical stories, and he developed a style of painting that drew upon aspects of Cubism and Expressionism. By 1913 he was creating paintings that contained abstract geometric forms and references to machines and urban architecture. This style was named Vorticism, due to Lewis’s belief that artists should observe the energy of modern society as if from a still point at the centre of a whirling vortex. In 1914 Lewis published the first of two numbers of Blast: Review of the Great English Vortex, a publication that announced the new art movement in a manifesto attacking Victorian values. Contributors included the American Imagist poet Ezra Pound, the French-born sculptor Jacob Epstein, and the French sculptor Henri Gaudier-Brzeska. Lewis’s writings in this journal show the influence of Imagist poetry, while his inventive typography and graphic designs, characterized by a violent and theatrical handling of harsh shapes, have much in common with Futurism, an Italian-based art movement that glorified speed and the machine.

In World War I Lewis served at the front as an artillery officer and then, commissioned as a war artist, he produced some memorable paintings and drawings of battle scenes. An example is A Battery Shelled (1919), which is representational yet retains a Vorticist angularity. He wrote his first novel, Tarr, in 1915 (published in 1918).

After the war Lewis became better known for his writing than for his visual art, although he continued to paint portraits and abstract watercolours. He worked in seclusion until 1926, when he began to publish a remarkable series of books: The Art of Being Ruled (political theory); Time and Western Man (an attack on subjectivity and the cult of flux in modern art); The Lion and the Fox (a study of Shakespeare and Machiavelli); and The Wild Body (short stories and essays on satire). In 1930 Lewis caused a furor in literary London with a satirical novel, The Apes of God, in which he scourged wealthy dilettantes.

The 1930s were difficult for Lewis. Although he produced some of his most noted paintings, such as The Surrender of Barcelona (1936) and a portrait of the poet T.S. Eliot (1938), and wrote some of his finest books—including Men Without Art (literary criticism; 1934), Blasting and Bombardiering (memoirs; 1937), and The Revenge for Love (a novel; 1937)—he was deeply in debt by the end of the decade. Two successful libel actions brought against Lewis in 1932 had made publishers wary of him, while his books and articles championing fascism had lost him many friends. Though Lewis later stated that he had made errors of political judgment, his reputation never recovered.

In 1939 Lewis and his wife journeyed to the United States, where he hoped to recoup his finances with a lecture tour and with portrait commissions. The outbreak of World War II made their return impossible; after a brief, unsuccessful stay in New York City, the couple went to Canada, where they lived in poverty for three years in a dilapidated Toronto hotel. Lewis’s 1954 novel, Self-Condemned, is a fictionalized account of those years.

At the war’s end, Lewis and his wife returned home; he became art critic for The Listener, a publication of the British Broadcasting Corporation. Until his sight failed in 1951, Lewis produced a memorable series of articles for that journal, praising several young British artists, such as Michael Ayrton and Francis Bacon, who later became famous. Lewis also wrote a second volume of memoirs (Rude Assignment, 1950), satirical short stories (Rotting Hill, 1951), and the continuation of a multivolume allegorical fantasy begun in 1928 (The Human Age, 1955–56). A year before his death he was honoured with a retrospective exhibition of his art at London’s Tate Gallery.

Double-asterisked [**] items are available on an open-access basis. Click the item to access it.

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Armond, Kate (2012), 'Wyndham Lewis and Djuna Barnes: Modernist Writers and German Expressionism' (Ph.D. Thesis, University of East Anglia).

**Armond, Kate (2013), 'Cosmic Men: Wyndham Lewis, Ernst Haeckel, and Paul Scheerbart', The Journal of Wyndham Lewis Studies, 4: 41-62.

Armond, Kate (2014), 'Wyndham Lewis and the Parables of Modernist Architecture', Modernist Cultures, 9.2 (October): 282-303.

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**Barac, Victor (2008), 'The Anthropology of Wyndham Lewis', Wyndham Lewis Annual, XIII: 36-43.

Barac, Victor (2011), 'The Culture Theories of Wyndham Lewis and T. S. Eliot', in Andrzej Gąsiorek, Alice Reeve-Tucker, and Nathan Waddell (eds), Wyndham Lewis and the Cultures of Modernity (Farnham: Ashgate): 185-200.

**Barac, Victor (2013), 'A Previously Unpublished Photograph of Wyndham Lewis', The Journal of Wyndham Lewis Studies, 4: 146-7. [image not reproducible online due to copyright]

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Beasley, Rebecca (2003), 'The Modern Public and Vortography', in Hélène Aji (ed.), Ezra Pound and Referentiality (Paris: Presses de l’Université de Paris-Sorbonne): 177-89.

Beasley, Rebecca (2007), 'Wyndham Lewis and Modernist Satire', in Morag Shiach (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Modernist Novel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press): 126-36.

**Beasley, Rebecca (2011), 'From British Avant-Garde to American Renaissance: Ezra Pound and Vorticism', 30-minute talk, 'Repositioning Vorticism' symposium held at Tate Britain.

Beasley, Rebecca (2013), 'Vortorussophilia', in Mark Antliff and Scott W. Klein (eds), Vorticism: New Perspectives (Oxford: Oxford University Press): 33-50.

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**Betsworth, Leon (2012), 'The Café in Modernist Literature: Wyndham Lewis, Ernest Hemingway, Jean Rhys' (Ph.D. Thesis, University of East Anglia).

Betsworth, Leon (forthcoming), '"A Serious Place": Wyndham Lewis, Tarr, and the Café', Textual Practice.

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**Bracewell, Pamela J. (1990), 'Space, Time, and the Artist: The Philosophy and Aesthetics of Wyndham Lewis' (Ph.D. Thesis, University of York).

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**Bray, Caroline (2005), 'Edward Wadsworth: From Vortex to Royal Academy', Review of Jonathan Black, Edward Wadsworth: Form, Feeling, and Calculation - The Complete Paintings and Drawings (2006), Wyndham Lewis Annual, XII: 85-90.

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Brooker, Peter (2007), Bohemia in London: The Social Scene of Early Modernism (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).

Brooker, Peter and Andrew Thacker (eds, 2009), The Oxford Critical and Cultural History of Modernist Magazines - Vol. 1: Britain and Ireland: 1880-1955 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Brooker, Peter and Andrew Thacker (eds, 2012), The Oxford Critical and Cultural History of Modernist Magazines - Vol. 2: North America 1894-1960 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Brooker, Peter and Sascha Bru, Andrew Thacker, and Christian Weikop (eds, 2013), The Oxford Critical and Cultural History of Modernist Magazines - Vol. 3: Europe 1880-1940 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

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Brown, Dennis (1994), Review of Christopher Butler, Early Modernism: Literature, Music, and Painting in Europe, 1900-1916 (1994), Wyndham Lewis Annual, I: 55-6.

Brown, Dennis (1998), 'Prophesying the Postmodern: Wyndham Lewis's America and Cosmic Man', Wyndham Lewis Annual, V: 9-22.

**Brown, Dennis (1999), 'THE HISTORY MAN COMETH', Review of Tyrus Miller, Late Modernism: Politics, Fiction, and the Arts Between the World Wars (1999) and Douglas Mao, Solid Objects: Modernism and the Test of Production (1998), Wyndham Lewis Annual, VI: 42-6.

**Brown, Dennis (2000), 'James Joyce's Fable of the Ondt and the Gracehoper: "Othering", Critical Leader-Worship, and Scapegoating', Wyndham Lewis Annual, VII: 32-42.

Brown, Dennis (2003), 'T. E. Hulme's "Cinders": Towards a Collage Aesthetic', in Paul Edwards (ed.), The Great London Vortex: Modernist Art and Literature (Bath: Sulis Press): 96-102.

**Brown, Dennis (2004), '"Light into a Dark Place": Literary Criticism in Men Without Art', Wyndham Lewis Annual, XI: 32-41.

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Buchowska, Dominika (2010), 'Around the Galleries: Art Exhibitions in London in 1914 through the Eyes of the Critics', in Michael J. K. Walsh (ed.), London, Modernism, and 1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press): 214-39.

Buchowska, Dominika (2010), 'Vorticism Denied: Wyndham Lewis and the English Cubists', in Andrzej Gąsiorek, Alice Reeve-Tucker, and Nathan Waddell (eds), Wyndham Lewis and the Cultures of Modernity (Farnham: Ashgate): 37-56.

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Burrells, Anna (2010), 'Inter-War Modernism and Technology 1918-1945: Machine Aesthetics in the Work of Ezra Pound, Francis Picabia, D. H. Lawrence, Henry Green, and Wyndham Lewis' (Ph.D. Thesis, University of Birmingham).

**Burrells, Anna (2010), 'Satire Machines: Wyndham Lewis, Samuel Butler, and Erewhon', The Journal of Wyndham Lewis Studies, 1: 62-80.

Burrells, Anna (2011), 'Wyndham Lewis and the Inter-War Popular Novel: Potboilers and Gunman Bestsellers', in Sascha Bru et al., Regarding the Popular: Modernism, the Avant-Garde, and High and Low Culture (Berlin: De Gruyter): 293-305.

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Caracciolo, Peter L. (ed., 1988), The Arabian Nights in English Literature: Studies in the Reception of 'The Thousand and One Nights' into British Culture (New York: St Martin's Press).

Caracciolo, Peter L. (1989), 'Buddhist Typologies in Heart of Darkness and Victory and their Contribution to the Modernism of Jacob Epstein, Wyndham Lewis, and T. S. Eliot', The Conradian, 14.1/2 (Dec.): 67-91.

Caracciolo, Peter L. (1990), '"Carnivals of Mass Murder" The Frazerian Origins of Wyndham Lewis's The Childermnass', in Robert Fraser (ed.), Sir James Frazer and the Literary Imagination (London: Macmillan): 207-31.

Caracciolo, Peter L. (1993), '"Like a Mexith's Renowned Statue Bristling with Emblems": Masquerade, Anthropology, Yeats and Pound among Wyndham Lewis's Apes of God', in Andrew Gibson (ed.), Pound in Multiple Perspective: A Collection of Critical Essays (London: Macmillan): 126-57.

Caracciolo, Peter L. (1995), 'Byzantium and Cosmic Man', Wyndham Lewis Annual, II: 23-9.

Caracciolo, Peter L. (1996), 'The Metamorphosis of Wyndham Lewis's The Human Age: Medium, Intertextuality, Genre', in Ian Willison et al. (eds), Modernist Writers and the Marketplace (London: Macmillan): 258-86.

Caracciolo, Peter L. and Paul Edwards (1998), '"In Fundamental Agreement": Yeats and Wyndham Lewis', Yeats Annual 13, ed. Warwick Gould (Basingstoke: Macmillan): 110-57.

**Caracciolo, Peter L. (1999), 'Wyndham Lewis, M. R. James, and Intertextuality Part I: Ghosts', Wyndham Lewis Annual, VI: 21-8.

**Caracciolo, Peter L. (2000), 'Wyndham Lewis, M. R. James, and Intertextuality Part II: Canons and the Uncanny', Wyndham Lewis Annual, VII: 43-54.

**Caracciolo, Peter L. (2001), 'Wyndham Lewis, M. R. James, and Intertextuality Part III: The Haunt of Angels - and the Phoenix', Wyndham Lewis Annual, VIII: 9-29.

Caracciolo, Peter L. (2007), 'From Signorelli to Caligari: Allusions to Painting and Film in The Human Age and its Visual Precursors', in Carmelo Cunchillos Jaime (ed.),Wyndham Lewis the Radical: Essays on Literature and Modernity (Bern: Peter Lang): 137-58.

**Caracciolo, Peter L. (2008), '"The Alice in Wonderland world of Jane Austen and Trollope", Its Role in the Genesis of Wyndham Lewis's The Human Age - and how Empson, I. A. Richards, Kipling, and Mary Webb also became Involved', Wyndham Lewis Annual, XIII: 74-107.

**Caracciolo, Peter L. (2010), '"What rough beast": Yeatsian glimpses of "Utopia" in Wyndham Lewis's The Human Age and America and Cosmic Man (and what Tzvetan Todorov and Ernst Bloch, let alone Barack Obama, might make of it all)', The Journal of Wyndham Lewis Studies, 1: 81-108.

**Caracciolo, Peter L. (2013): 'Shelley's Hellas and Joseph Jacobs's 'The Wandering Jew' in Self Condemned and The Human Age', Lewisletter, new series, 31: 16-20.

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**Chaney, Edward (2013), 'R. B. Kitaj (1932-2007): Warburgian Artist', emaj: online journal of art

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Cianci, Giovanni (ed., 1982), Wyndham Lewis: Letteratura / Pittura (Palermo: Sellerio Editore).

Cianci, Giovanni (1991), 'Wyndham Lewis vorticofuturista (1909-1915)', in Giovanni Cianci (ed.), Modernismo/Modernismi: Dall'avanguardia storica agli anni Trenta e oltre (Milan: Principato): 175-93.

Cianci, Giovanni (1996), 'A Man at War: Lewis's Vital Geometries', in Paul Edwards (ed.), Volcanic Heaven: Essays on the Writing and Painting of Wyndham Lewis (Santa Rosa: Black Sparrow Press): 11-24.

Cianci, Giovanni (2000), 'Modernismo londinese: Il Nietzsche dell "Action Anglaise": T. E. Hulme, Ezra Pound e Wyndham Lewis', in Bruno Pompili (ed.), Nietzsche e le Avanguardie (Bari: Graphis): 149-75.

Cianci, Giovanni (2001), 'Ruskin, il sogno di Venezia e l'utopia urbana modernista (Ezra Pound e Wyndham Lewis)', in Sergio Perosa (ed.), Ruskin e Venezia: La bellezza in declino (Florence: Olschki): 81-99.

Cianci, Giovanni (2014), 'Modernist Interpreters of Shakespeare: Wyndham Lewis and G. Wilson Knight', in Giovanni Cianci and Caroline Patey (eds), Will the Modernist: Shakespeare and the European Historical Avant-Gardes (Oxford: Peter Lang): 77-104.

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Curyllo-Klag, Izabela (2014), 'Modernism in a Rear-View Mirror: McLuhan's COUNTERBLAST of 1954 and 1969', in Katarzyna Bazarnik and Izabela Curyllo-Klag (eds), Incarnations of Material Textuality: From Modernism to Liberature (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars): 35-44.

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Edwards, Paul (1972), 'After Blast', Review of Hugh Kenner, The Pound Era (1971) and W. C. Wees, Vorticism and the English Avant Garde (1972), Cambridge Review, 94.2209 (20 October): 29-32.

Edwards, Paul and S. Walker (1979), 'Lewis's Critique of Relativity in One-Way Song', Lewisletter, 3 (September): 3-6. [Substantially reprinted in Wyndham Lewis, Collected Poems and Plays, ed. Alan Munton (Manchester: Carcanet, 1979): 212-19.]

Edwards, Paul (1979), 'Lewis and Kleist: Two Views of Perfection', Enemy News, 10 (May): 10-11.

Edwards, Paul (1980), 'The Apes of God: Form and Meaning', in Jeffrey Meyers (ed.), Wyndham Lewis: A Revaluation (London: Athlone Press): 133-48.

Edwards, Paul (1980), 'The Vortex Revisited', Review of Timothy Materer, Vortex: Pound, Eliot, Lewis (1979); and 'Lewis: A Celebration from the Left', Review of Fables of Aggression: Wyndham Lewis, the Modernist as Fascist (1979), Enemy News, 12 (Spring): 2-7.

Edwards, Paul (1980), 'The New Lewis Biography', Review of Jeffrey Meyers, The Enemy: A Biography of Wyndham Lewis (1980), Enemy News, 13 (Autumn): 1-5.

Edwards, Paul (1981), Wyndham Lewis, The Apes of God (1930), rpt. with 'Afterword' [629-39] (Santa Barbara: Black Sparrow Press).

Edwards, Paul (1981), 'Lewis, (Percy) Wyndham 1882-1957', in J. Wintle (ed.), Makers of Modern Culture (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul): 308-9.

Edwards, Paul (1982), 'Wyndham Lewis and Nietzsche: How Much Truth Does a Man Require?', in Giovanni Cianci (ed.), Wyndham Lewis: Letteratura / Pittura (Palermo: Sellerio Editore): 203-17.

Edwards, Paul (1982), 'Signifying Nothing: The Revenge for Love', Enemy News, 15 (Winter): 13-22.

Edwards, Paul (1983), 'Wyndham Lewis: An Ego and its Own', Introduction to the catalogue of the exhibition, 'Wyndham Lewis 1882-1957' (London: Anthony d'Offay Gallery), n.p. [6 pages]

Edwards, Paul (1983), 'Reappraisal: Wyndham Lewis', The Fiction Magazine, 2.3 (Winter): 51-3.

Edwards, Paul (1984), '"Clodoveo" and "Belcanto": Wyndham Lewis and James Joyce', in Seamus Cooney (ed.), Blast 3 (Santa Barbara: Black Sparrow Press): 126-33.

Edwards, Paul (1984), 'Lewis in the Twenties: The Second d’Offay Show’, Review of the exhibition, 'Wyndham Lewis: The Twenties', Anthony d'Offay Gallery, Sep.-Oct. 1984, Enemy News, 20 (Winter): 7-9

Edwards, Paul (ed., 1985), Wyndham Lewis, Rotting Hill (1951; Santa Barbara: Black Sparrow Press).

Edwards, Paul (ed., 1985), Wyndham Lewis, The Vulgar Streak (1941; Santa Barbara: Black Sparrow Press).

Edwards, Paul (ed., 1986), Wyndham Lewis, The Caliph’s Design: Architects! Where is Your Vortex? (1919; Santa Barbara: Black Sparrow Press).

Edwards, Paul (1986), Review of Reed Way Dasenbrock, The Literary Vorticism of Ezra Pound and Wyndham Lewis (1985), Enemy News, 22 (Spring): 50-3.

Edwards, Paul (1987), 'Augustan and related Allusions in The Apes of God', Enemy News, 24 (Summer): 17-21.

Edwards, Paul (1987), 'At Last to Burlington House', Review of the exhibition, 'British Art in the Twentieth Century: The Modern Movemen', The Royal Academy, Jan-April 1987, Enemy News, 24 (Summer): 22-4.

Edwards, Paul (1988), 'Wyndham Lewis and the Filth Bazaar', Enemy News, 26 (Summer): 12-14.

Edwards, Paul (1988), Review of Julian Symons, Makers of the New: The Revolution in Literature, 1912-1939 (1987), Enemy News, 26 (Summer): 20.

Edwards, Paul (1988), 'The Invisible Poet', Enemy News, 27 (Winter): 4-5.

Edwards, Paul (ed., 1989), Wyndham Lewis, Creatures of Habit and Creatures of Change: Essays on Art, Literature and Society, 1914-1956 (Santa Rosa: Black Sparrow Press).

Edwards, Paul (1989), 'Weathering the Siberia of the Mind', Review of Julian Symons (ed.), The Essential Wyndham Lewis (1989), The Listener, 121.3116 (1 June): 25.

Edwards, Paul (1990), 'Wyndham Lewis', Review of the exhibition, 'Wyndham Lewis, 1882-1957', Austin / Desmond Fine Art, Sep.-Oct. 1990, Art Monthly, 140 (October): 16-17.

Edwards, Paul (1990), Review of Andrew Wilson (ed.), Vorticism: ICSAC Cahier 8/9 (1988); John Constable and S. J. M. Watson (eds), Wyndham Lewis and I. A. Richards (1989); and Ravendra Prakash, The Literary Criticism of Wyndham Lewis (1989), Enemy News, 31 (Winter): 21-3.

Edwards, Paul (1992), Wyndham Lewis: Art and War (London: The Wyndham Lewis Memorial Trust in association with Lund Humphries). 

Edwards, Paul (ed., 1993), Wyndham Lewis, Time and Western Man (1927; Santa Rosa: Black Sparrow Press).

Edwards, Paul (1993), 'Self and Not-Self', Review of Daniel Schenker, Wyndham Lewis: Religion and Modernism (1992) and David Ayers, Wyndham Lewis and Western Man (1992), Times Literary Supplement, 4683 (1 January): 22.

Edwards, Paul and Thomas R. Smith (eds, 1997), 'Four Essays by Wyndham Lewis' ['The Anonymity of Perfection', 'The Machine', 'Berlin Revisited', and 'Preliminary Aside to the Reader: Regarding Gossip and Its Pitfalls'], Modernism / Modernity, 4.2: 165-87.

Edwards, Paul (1994), 'Gerald Brenan and the Heroine of Tarr', Lewisletter, new series, 1 (Apr.): 4.

**Edwards, Paul (1994), Review of Andrew Gibson (ed.), Pound in Multiple Perspective: A Collection of Critical Essays (1993) and Sir James George Frazer, The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion, ed. Robert Fraser (1994), Wyndham Lewis Annual, I: 53-5. 

**Edwards, Paul (1994), 'What Were Red Duet?', Wyndham Lewis Annual, I (Nov.): 34-8.

Edwards, Paul (1994), 'Wyndham Lewis versus James Joyce: Shaun versus Shem?', Irish Studies Review, 7 (Summer): 11-17. [Reprinted in Sarah Briggs, Paul Hyland, and Nel Sammells (eds), Reviewing Ireland: Essays and Interviews from 'Irish Studies Review' (Bath: Sulis Press, 1998): 164-73.]

Edwards, Paul (1995), '"The Strange Actor" and "Semitic Discourse"', Wyndham Lewis Annual, IV: 32-8.

Edwards, Paul and L. F. Edwards (1995), 'Sir Percy Wyndham: Soldier of Fortune', Lewisletter, new series, 5 (Autumn): 1-2.

Edwards, Paul (1995), Review of Wyndham Lewis, The Enemy (vols 1-3), ed. David Peters Corbett (1994), Wyndham Lewis Annual, II: 54-5.

Edwards, Paul (ed., 1996), Volcanic Heaven: Essays on the Writing and Painting of Wyndham Lewis (Santa Rosa: Black Sparrow Press).

Edwards, Paul (1996), 'Lewis's Myth of the Artist: from Bohemia to the Underground', in Edwards (ed.), Volcanic Heaven [above]: 25-39.

Edwards, Paul (1996), 'Fresh Eyes on the Great English Vortex', Review of the exhibition, 'Blast: Vortizismus: Die Erste Avantgarde in England, 1914-1918', Times Literary Supplement, 4888 (6 December): 21.

Edwards, Paul (1996), Review of Mark Perrino, The Poetics of Mockery: Wyndham Lewis's 'The Apes of God' and the Popularization of Modernism (1995), Wyndham Lewis Annual, III: 44-5.

Edwards, Paul (1997), '"The Strange Actor" and "Semitic Discourse"', Wyndham Lewis Annual, IV: 32-8.

Edwards, Paul (ed., 1997), Wyndham Lewis, 'Three Unpublished Essays', Modernism / modernity, 4.2 (Apr.): 165-80.

Edwards, Paul (1997), 'Wyndham Lewis's Narrative of Origins: "The Death of the Ankou"', The Modern Language Review, 92.1 (Jan.): 22-35.

Edwards, Paul and Peter L. Caracciolo (1998), '"In Fundamental Agreement": Yeats and Wyndham Lewis', Yeats Annual 13, ed. Warwick Gould (Basingstoke: Macmillan): 110-57.

Edwards, Paul (1998), '"It's Time for Another War": The Historical Unconscious and the Failure of Modernism', in David Peters Corbett (ed.), Wyndham Lewis and the Art of Modern War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press): 124-53.

Edwards, Paul (1998), 'Wyndham Lewis's Timon of Athens Portfolio: The Emergence of Vorticist Abstraction', Apollo, CXLVIII.440 (Oct.): 34-40.

Edwards, Paul (2000), Wyndham Lewis: Painter and Writer (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press).

Edwards, Paul (ed., 2000), Blast! Vorticism, 1914-18 (London: Ashgate, 2000).

Edwards, Paul (2000), 'Introduction' and '"You Must Speak with Two Tongues": Wyndham Lewis's Vorticist Aesthetics and Literature', in Edwards (ed.), Blast: Vorticism, 1914-18 [above]: 9-13 and 113-20.

Edwards, Paul (2002), 'Wyndham Lewis and the Rappel à l'ordre: Classicism and Significant Form, 1919-21', in David Peters Corbett, Ysanne Holt, and Fiona Russell (eds), The Geographies of Englishness: Landscape and the National Past 1880-1940 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press): 141-68.

Edwards, Paul (2002-3), 'Relativity of Consciousness in the Aesthetics of Wyndham Lewis and Virginia Woolf', Wyndham Lewis Annual, IX-X: 57-64.

Edwards, Paul (2002-3), 'Wyndham Lewis at the Second Post-Impressionist Exhibition: Reproductions of Three Lost Works', Wyndham Lewis Annual, IX-X: 73-9.

Edwards, Paul (2002-3), 'Rape as Cultural History', Review of Ann L. Ardis, Modernism and Cultural Conflict, 1880-1922 (2002), Wyndham Lewis Annual, IX-X: 82-5.

Edwards, Paul (introd., 2004), Wyndham Lewis, The Revenge for Love (1937; London: Penguin).

Edwards, Paul (2004), '"Dragon in a Cage": Wyndham Lewis, 1882-1957', in Jacky Klein (ed.), The Bone beneath the Pulp: Drawings by Wyndham Lewis (London: Courtauld Institute of Art Gallery): 7-19. [exhibition archive link]

**Edwards, Paul (2004), 'Academic Hallucination', Wyndham LewisAnnual, XI: 92-96.

**Edwards, Paul (2004), 'Timon Rediscovered: The Projected Max Goschen Edition, 1914', Wyndham Lewis Annual, XI: 13-17.

**Edwards, Paul (2004), 'Together at Last: Timon, Shakespeare, and Lewis Meet: A New Edition', Wyndham Lewis Annual, XI: 81-83.

Edwards, Paul (2005), 'Futurism, Literature and the Market', in Peter Nicholls and Laura Marcus (eds), The Cambridge History of Twentieth-Century English Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press): 132-51.

Edwards, Paul (2007), 'The Apes of God and the English Classical Tradition', in Carmelo Cunchillos Jaime (ed.), Wyndham Lewis the Radical: Essays on Literature and Modernity (Bern: Peter Lang): 91-107.

Edwards, Paul (2007), 'Artists as Activists: C. R. W. Nevinson and Wyndham Lewis', in Michael Walsh (ed.), A Dilemma of English Modernism: Visual and Verbal Politics in the Life and Work of C. R. W. Nevinson (1889-1946) (Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press): 72-88. 

Edwards, Paul (2007), 'Percy Wyndham Lewis, 1882-1957', Introduction to catalogue of the exhibition, 'Percy Wyndham Lewis (Tu 1897-98)' (Rugby: Rugby School) n.p. [3-7].

Edwards, Paul (2008), 'Nordic Beach and T. S. Eliot: An Introduction', Wyndham Lewis Annual, XIII: 108-9.

Edwards, Paul with Richard Humphreys (2008), Wyndham Lewis Portraits (London: National Portrait Gallery).

Edwards, Paul (2009), 'Introduction', BLAST (facsimile reprint; Berkeley CA: Gingko Press and London: Thames and Hudson): v-xii. [Reprinted in Spanish translation: 'Una Introducción a Blast', Blast (semi-facsimile; Spanish translation), trans. Yolanda Morato (Madrid: Fundación Juan March): 184-9.]

Edwards, Paul (2009), 'Cultural Criticism at the Margins: Wyndham Lewis, The Tyro (1920-21), and The Enemy (1927-29)’, in Peter Brooker and Andrew Thacker (eds), The Oxford Critical and Cultural History of Modernist Magazines – Vol. 1: Britain and Ireland: 1880‒1955 (Oxford: Oxford University Press): 552-69.

Edwards, Paul (2010), 'Wyndham Lewis y el Timon de Atenas', in William Shakespeare and Thomas Middleton, Timon de Atenas, trans. Angel-Luis Pujante (Madrid: Fundación Juan March): 11-21. [Also responsible for placement of WL plates.]

Edwards, Paul (2010), 'Creation Myth: The Art and Writing of Wyndham Lewis', 'Wyndham Lewis the Artist' [catalogue entries and introductions to sections 1, 3, and 4], 'Wyndham Lewis the Writer' [all catalogue entries], 'Wyndham Lewis: An Anthology' [compiler], 'Texts on Wyndham Lewis' [compiler], in Wyndham Lewis 1882-1957 (Madrid: Fundación Juan March): 22-31, 96-223, 266-93, 302-37, 343-61, and 363-70.

Edwards, Paul (2010), 'A Strange Synthesis: Wyndham Lewis's Vorticism', in Mark Antliff and Vivien Greene (eds), The Vorticists: Rebel Artists in London and New York, 1914-1918 (London: Tate Publishing): 35-45.

Edwards, Paul (2011), 'Wyndham Lewis and the Uses of Shellshock: Meat and Postmodernism', in Andrzej Gąsiorek, Alice Reeve-Tucker, and Nathan Waddell (eds), Wyndham Lewis and the Cultures of Modernity (Farnham: Ashgate): 221-40.

**Edwards, Paul (2011), 'Big Englander', The Journal of Wyndham Lewis Studies, 2: 156-62.

Edwards, Paul (2011), 'Wyndham Lewis', in Brian W. Shaffer, The Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century Fiction, British and Irish volume (Oxford: Blackwell).

**Edwards, Paul (2012), 'An Unknown Portrait by Wyndham Lewis', The Journal of Wyndham Lewis Studies, 3: 1-3.

Edwards, Paul (2012), 'False Bottoms: Wyndham Lewis's The Revenge for Love and the Incredible Real', in John Attridge and Rod Rosenquist (eds), Incredible Modernism: Literature, Trust and Deception (Aldershot: Ashgate): 99-114.

**Edwards, Paul (2013), 'A Gift to the Courtauld: Wyndham Lewis's Ivor Back', The Journal of Wyndham Lewis Studies, 4: 1-2.

Edwards, Paul (2013), 'BLAST and the Revolutionary Mood of Wyndham Lewis’s Vorticism', in Mark Antliff and Scott W. Klein (eds), Vorticism: New Perspectives (Oxford: Oxford University Press): 199-219.

Edwards, Paul (2015), 'A Dark Insect Swarming: Wyndham Lewis and Nature', Ritsumeikan Studies in Language and Culture, 26.3 (Feb.): 25-42.

Edwards, Paul (2015), 'Legacy', in Andrzej Gąsiorek and Nathan Waddell (eds), Wyndham Lewis: A Critical Guide (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press): 219-33.

Edwards, Paul (2016), 'Lewis, Satire, and Portraiture', in Tyrus Miller (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Wyndham Lewis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press): 72-86.

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Einhaus, Ann-Marie (2011), 'Modernism, Truth, and the Canon of First World War Literature', Modernist Cultures, 6.2 (October): 296-314.

Einhaus, Ann-Marie (2012), 'Minds at War, Minds in War: The Wartime Short Fiction of D. H. Lawrence and Wyndham Lewis', Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik, 60.4: 319-44.

Einhaus, Ann-Marie (2013), The Short Story and the First World War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Einhaus, Ann-Marie (2015), 'Lewis and War', in Andrzej Gąsiorek and Nathan Waddell (eds), Wyndham Lewis: A Critical Guide (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press): 49-63.

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Fox, C. J. and Walter Michel (eds, 1969), Wyndham Lewis, Wyndham Lewis on Art: Collected Writings, 1913-1956 (London: Funk & Wagnalls, 1969).

Fox, C. J. and Robert T. Champman (eds, 1973), Wyndham Lewis, Unlucky for Pringle: Unpublished and Other Stories (London: Vision).

Fox, C. J. (ed., 1975), Enemy Salvoes: Selected Literary Criticism by Wyndham Lewis, introd. C. H. Sisson (London: Vision Press).

Fox, C. J. (ed., 1983), Journey into Barbary: Morocco Writings and Drawings (Santa Barbara: Black Sparrow Press).

Fox, C. J. (1987), 'Aldington and Wyndham Lewis: Allies against the Fool-Farm', in Lionel Kelly (ed.), Richard Aldington: Papers from the Reading Symposium (Reading: English Department): 85-97.

Fox, C. J. and Robert Edward Murray (1996), 'The War Fiction', in Paul Edwards (ed.), Volcanic Heaven: Essays on the Writing and Painting of Wyndham Lewis (Santa Rosa: Black Sparrow Press): 65-86.

[See also the profile of C. J. Fox on the website of the Special Collections and University Archives unit at the University of Victoria.]

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**Gąsiorek, Andrzej (1999), '"The Cave-Men of the New Mental Wilderness": Wyndham Lewis and the Self in Modernity', Wyndham Lewis Annual, VI: 3-20.

**Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2001), '"Jujitsu for the Governed"? Wyndham Lewis and the Problem of Power', Wyndham Lewis Annual, VIII: 30-49.

Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2001), Review of Paul Edwards, Wyndham Lewis: Painter and Writer (2000), Textual Practice, 15.3: 562-8.

Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2001), 'Wyndham Lewis', in Chris Baldick and Peter Childs (eds), The Literary Encyclopedia - Volume 1.1.1.08: English Writing and Culture of the early Twentieth Century, 1901-1945.

Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2003), 'Vorticism', in Chris Baldick and Peter Childs (eds), The Literary Encyclopedia - Volume 1.1.1.08: English Writing and Culture of the early Twentieth Century, 1901-1945.

Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2004), Wyndham Lewis (Tavistock: Northcote House / British Council).

Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2005), '"Architecture or Revolution"? Le Corbusier and Wyndham Lewis', in Peter Brooker and Andrew Thacker (eds), Geographies of Modernism: Literatures, Cultures, Space (London: Routledge).

Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2005), 'Wyndham Lewis: Tarr', in David Bradshaw and Kevin J. H. Dettmar (eds), A Companion to Modernist Literature and Culture (Oxford: Blackwell): 402-10.

Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2007), 'War, "Primitivism", and the Future of "the West": Reflections on D. H. Lawrence and Wyndham Lewis', in Richard Begam and Michael Valdez Moses (eds), Modernism and Colonialism: British and Irish Literature, 1900-1939 (North Carolina: Duke University Press): 91-110.

Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2008), '"Content to be Superseded"? Ford in the Great London Vortex', in Andrzej Gąsiorek and Daniel Moore (eds), Ford Madox Ford: Literary Networks and Cultural Transformations, International Ford Madox Ford Studies 7 (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi): 81-104.

Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2008), 'The "Little Magazine" as Weapon: BLAST (1914‒15)', in Peter Brooker and Andrew Thacker (eds), The Oxford Critical and Cultural History of Modernist Magazines – Vol. 1: Britain and Ireland: 1880‒1955 (Oxford: Oxford University Press): 290-313.

Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2010), 'Lewis and Politics', in Wyndham Lewis (1882-1957) (Madrid: Fundacion Juan March): 66-75.

Gąsiorek, Andrzej and Alice Reeve-Tucker, Nathan Waddell (eds, 2011), Wyndham Lewis and the Cultures of Modernity (Farnham: Ashgate).

Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2011), 'Wyndham Lewis on Art, Culture, and Politics in the 1930s', in Gąsiorek, Reeve-Tucker, and Waddell (eds), Wyndham Lewis and the Cultures of Modernity [above]: 201-22.

**Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2012), Review of David A. Wragg, Wyndham Lewis and the Philosophy of Art in Early Modernist Britain (2005), The Journal of Wyndham Lewis Studies, 3: 202-11.

Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2013), 'Modern Art in England circa 1914: Hulme and Wyndham Lewis', in Mark Antliff and Scott W. Klein (eds), Vorticism: New Perspectives (Oxford: Oxford University Press): 51-67.

Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2015), A History of Modernist Literature (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell).

Gąsiorek, Andrzej and Nathan Waddell (eds, 2015), Wyndham Lewis: A Critical Guide (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).

Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2015), 'Lewis and Technology', in Gąsiorek and Waddell (eds), Wyndham Lewis: A Critical Guide [above]: 159-72.

Gąsiorek, Andrzej (2016), 'Wyndham Lewis and the Critique of Modernism', in Tyrus Miller (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Wyndham Lewis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press): 32-43.

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**Head, Philip (1994), 'The Enemy as Deconstructionist?', Wyndham Lewis Annual, I: 42-8.

Head, Philip (1995), 'Lewis and the Russian Experiment in Art', Wyndham Lewis Annual, II: 15-22.

Head, Philip (1997), 'Ideology, Utopia, Myth; and Lewis's "Politics of the Intellect"', Wyndham Lewis Annual, IV: 20-32.

**Head, Philip (1997), Vorticist Antecedents (Ware: The Wyndham Lewis Society).

**Head, Philip (1999), 'HURRY UP PLEASE IT'S TIME', Wyndham Lewis Annual, VI: 29-35.

**Head, Philip (2001), 'Death and the Monad', Wyndham Lewis Annual, VIII: 62-8.

Head, Philip (2001), Engaging the Enemy: The Gentle Art of Contradiction in the Work of Wyndham Lewis (Borough Green: Green Knight Editions).

**Head, Philip (2004), 'Trouble was their Business: Wyndham Lewis, Raymond Chandler, and the "Generation of 1914"', Wyndham Lewis Annual, XI: 68-77.

Head, Philip (2005), 'Lewis and "the Political"', Wyndham Lewis Annual, XII: 29-41.

**Head, Philip (2008), 'The Enemy and his Enemies', Wyndham Lewis Annual, XIII: 44-53.

**Head, Philip (2011), 'Vorticism and Architecture', The Journal of Wyndham Lewis Studies, 2: 45-67.

**Head, Philip (2012), 'The Transfiguration of "Russian" Lewis', The Journal of Wyndham Lewis Studies, 3: 93-122.

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Hickman, Miranda (2006), The Geometry of Modernism: The Vorticist Idiom in Lewis, Pound, H.D., and Yeats (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press).

Hickman, Miranda (2013), 'The Gender of Vorticism: Jessie Dismorr, Helen Saunders, and Vorticist Feminism', in Mark Antliff and Scott W. Klein (eds), Vorticism: New Perspectives (Oxford: Oxford University Press): 119-36.

Hickman, Miranda (2015), 'Self Condemned: Casualties of the Vortex', in Andrzej Gąsiorek and Nathan Waddell (eds), Wyndham Lewis: A Critical Guide (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press): 203-18.

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Humphreys, Richard, (2004), Wyndham Lewis, British Artists Series (London: Tate Publishing).

Humphreys, Richard (2016), 'Lewis as Visual Artist', in Tyrus Miller (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Wyndham Lewis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press): 44-60.

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Kane, Louise (2015), 'Pre-War Writing', in Andrzej Gąsiorek and Nathan Waddell (eds), Wyndham Lewis: A Critical Guide (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press): 5-19.

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Klein, Scott W. (1991), Review of SueEllen Campbell, The Enemy Opposite: The Outlaw Criticism of Wyndham Lewis (1988), James Joyce Quarterly, 28.2: 539-42.

Klein, Scott W. (1991), 'The Experiment of Vorticist Drama: Wyndham Lewis and Enemy of the Stars', Twentieth-Century Literature, 37.2 (Summer): 225-39.

Klein, Scott W. (1994), The Fictions of James Joyce and Wyndham Lewis: Monsters of Nature and Design (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Klein, Scott W. (1998), 'Wyndham Lewis', in Paul Schellinger (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Novel (Chicago and London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers): 764-6.

**Klein, Scott W. (2008), 'The Tyro: An Introduction', Modernist Journals Project.

Klein, Scott W. (2010), 'Modernist Babylons: Utopian Aesthetics and Urban Spectacle in D. W. Griffith and Wyndham Lewis', Modernist Cultures, 5.1 (May): 9-29.

**Klein, Scott W. (2010), 'Night Thoughts on Editing Tarr', The Journal of Wyndham Lewis Studies, 1: 43-61.

Klein, Scott W. (ed., 2010), Wyndham Lewis, Tarr (1928), Oxford World Classics Series (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Klein, Scott W. (2011), 'Modern Times against Western Man: Wyndham Lewis, Charlie Chaplin, and Cinema', in Andrzej Gąsiorek, Alice Reeve-Tucker, and Nathan Waddell (eds), Wyndham Lewis and the Cultures of Modernity (Farnham: Ashgate): 127-43.

Klein, Scott W. (2013), 'How German Is It: Vorticism, Nationalism, and the Paradox of Aesthetic Self-Definition', in Mark Antliff and Scott W. Klein (eds), Vorticism: New Perspectives (Oxford: Oxford University Press): 68-86.

**Klein, Scott W. (2013), Review of Alice Bennett, Afterlife and Narrative in Contemporary FictionThe Journal of Wyndham Lewis Studies, 4: 150-4.

Klein, Scott W. (2015), 'The Human Age', in Andrzej Gąsiorek and Nathan Waddell (eds), Wyndham Lewis: A Critical Guide (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press): 189-202.

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**Lane, Graham (1994), 'Bibliographical Notes for 1992', Wyndham Lewis Annual, I: 57-63.

**Lane, Graham (1999), 'Bibliographical Notes for 1996 and 1978', Wyndham Lewis Annual, VI: 51-64.

**Lane, Graham (2000), 'Bibliographical Notes for 1977', Wyndham Lewis Annual, VII: 55-61.

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Lewis, Christopher (2014), 'Processes of Symbolic Classification in Wyndham Lewis's Paintings and Writings 1912-1914', The Journal of Wyndham Lewis Studies, 5: 75-94.

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Mao, Douglas (1998), Solid Objects: Modernism and the Test of Production (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press). 

Mao, Douglas (2006), 'A Shaman in Common: Lewis, Auden, and the Queerness of Liberalism', in Douglas Mao and Rebecca Walkowitz (eds), Bad Modernisms (Durham, NC: Duke University Press): 206-37.

Mao, Douglas (2013), 'Blasting and Disappearing', in Mark Antliff and Scott W. Klein (eds), Vorticism: New Perspectives (Oxford: Oxford University Press): 235-55.

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Michel, Walter and C. J. Fox (eds, 1969), Wyndham Lewis on Art: Collected Writings, 1913-1956 (London: Funk & Wagnalls, 1969).

Michel, Walter (1969-70), 'Wyndham Lewis the Painter', Agenda, Wyndham Lewis Special Issue, 7.3-8.1 (Autumn-Winter): 78-84.

Michel, Walter (1971), Wyndham Lewis: Paintings and Drawings (London: Thames and Hudson).

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