Block Quotes Turabian Format Bibliography

General Format

Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr
Last Edited: 2018-02-16 12:40:43

As The Chicago Manual of Style is primarily intended as a style guide for published works rather than for class papers, where necessary, CMOS guidelines will be supplemented with information from the student reference, Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.), which is largely based on CMOS with some slight alterations and additions.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation style, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS.

General CMOS Guidelines

  • Text should be consistently double-spaced, including block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions. 
  • For block quotations, which are also called extracts:
    • A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked. 
    • CMOS recommends blocking two or more lines of poetry.
    • A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.  
    • A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
    • Blocked quotations should be indented with the word processor’s indention tool. 
  • Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1. 
  • Subheadings should be used for longer papers. 
    • CMOS recommends you devise your own format but use consistency as your guide. 
      • For CMOS and Turabian’s recommendations, see “Headings,” below. 

Supplemental Turabian Style Guidelines

  • Margins should be set at no less than 1”.
  • Typeface should be something readable, such as Times New Roman or Courier.
  • Font size should be no less than 10 pt. (preferably, 12 pt.). 

Major Paper Sections

Title Page
  • According to Turabian style, class papers will either include a title page or include the title on the first page of the text. Use the following guidelines should your instructor or context require a title page:
    • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
    • Your name, class information, and the date should follow several lines later. 
    • For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
    • Double-space each line of the title page.

 

    Image Caption: CMOS Title Page

  • Different practices apply for theses and dissertation (see Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, ad Dissertations [8th ed.]. 

Main Body
  • Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized. 
  • Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name. 
    • Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized. 
    • Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
    • The titles of most poems should be enclosed in double quotation marks, but the titles of very long poems should be italicized.
    • Titles of plays should be italicized.
    • Otherwise, take a minimalist approach to capitalization.
      • For example, use lowercase terms to describe periods, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
    • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation should match the surrounding text, and it takes no quotation marks. To off-set the block quote from surrounding text, indent the entire quotation using the word processor’s indentation tool. It is also possible to off-set the block quotation by using a different or smaller font than the surrounding text.

In Flowers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought, Rose eloquently sums up his argument in the following quotation:

In a society of control, a politics of conduct is
    designed into the fabric of existence itself, into the
    organization of space, time, visibility, circuits of
    communication. And these enwrap each individual life
    decision and action—about labour [sic], purchases, debts,
    credits, lifestyle, sexual contracts and the like—in a web
    of incitements, rewards, current sanctions and foreboding 
    of future sanctions which serve to enjoin citizens to
    maintain particular types of control over their conduct.
    These assemblages which entail the securitization of
    identity are not unified, but dispersed, not hierarchical
    but rhizomatic, not totalized but connected in a web or
    relays and relations. (246)

References
  • Label the first page of your back matter, and your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author Date style). 
  • Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry. 
  • Leave one blank line between remaining entries. 
  • List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry. 
  • Use “and,” not an ampersand, “&,” for multi-author entries. 
    • For two to three authors, write out all names. 
    • For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations. 
    • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text. 
    • Write out publishers’ names in full. 
    • Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable. 
    • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
    • Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible. 
    • If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).

Image Caption: CMOS References Page

Footnotes
  • Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper. 
  • In the text:
    • Note numbers are superscripted.
    • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after all punctuation, except for the dash. 
  • In the notes themselves:
    • Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).  
    • Lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left. Place commentary after source documentation when a footnote contains both; separate commentary and documentation by a period. 
      • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.
      • Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range. 

For more information on footnotes, please see CMOS NB Sample Paper.

Headings

While CMOS does not include a prescribed system for formatting headings and subheads, CMOS makes several recommendations.

  • Maintain consistency and parallel structure in headings and subheads.
  • Use headline-style for purposes of capitalization.
  • Subheadings should begin on a new line.
  • Subheadings can be distinguished by font-size.
  • Ensure that each level of hierarchy is clear and consistent.
  • Levels of subheads can be differentiated by type style, use of boldface or italics, and placement on the page, usually either centered or flush left.
  • Use no more than three levels of hierarchy.
  • Avoid ending subheadings with periods. 

Turabian has an optional system of five heading levels.

Turabian Subheading Plan

Chicago Headings  

Level

Format

1

Centered, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization 

2

Centered, Regular Type, Headline-style Capitalization

3

Flush Left, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization  

4

Flush left, roman type, sentence-style capitalization

5

Run in at beginning of paragraph (no blank line after), boldface or italic type, sentence-style capitalization, terminal period.

Here is an example of the five-level heading system:

Image Caption: CMOS Headings

 

Tables and Figures
  • Position tables and figures as soon as possible after they are first referenced. If necessary, present them after the paragraph in which they are described.
  • For figures, include a caption, or short explanation of the figure or illustration, directly after the figure number.
  • Cite the source of the table and figure information with a “credit line” at the bottom of the table or figure and, if applicable, after the caption. The credit line should be distinguished from the caption by being enclosed in parenthesis or written in different type.
    • Cite a source as you would for parenthetical citation, and include full information in an entry on your Bibliography or References page.
    • Acknowledge reproduced or adapted sources appropriately (i.e., photo by; data adapted from; map by . . . ).
    • If a table includes data not acquired by the author of the text, include an unnumbered footnote. Introduce the note by the word Source(s) followed by a colon, then include the full source information, and end the note with a period. 

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS

Contributors’ names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.

Footnote or Endnote (N):

    1. Contributors’ Names, “Title of Resource,” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name, last edited date, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

    1. Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert,Allen Brizee, and Vanessa Iacocca, “General Format,” The Purdue OWL, last edited date, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Name, Contributor 1, Contributor 2 Name, and Contributor 3 (etc.) Name. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name. Last edited date. http://Web address for OWL resource.

Clements, Jessica, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, and Vanessa Iacocca. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL. Last edited date. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

Author Date In-text Citation:

(Contributors’ Surnames year of publication.

(Clements et al. 2017).

Author Date References Page Citation:

Contributor 1 LastName, Contributor 1 FirstName, Contributor 2 Name, and Contributor 3 Name. Year of Publication. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name. Last edited date. http://Web address for OWL resource.

Clements, Jessica, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, and Vanessa Iacocca. 2017. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL. Last edited October 12, 2017. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02.

Guide to Turabian's A Manual for Writers
(printable version here)

Format of the Paper:

1. Use Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (15th edition) for unanswered questions.

2. Check with your professor to see whether endnotes or footnotes should be used.

3. A complete citation (such as the following for a book -- author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, and page(s)), as outlined in Turabian, should be used for the first citation of each individual source. The author's name and the new page citation will suffice for subsequent citations of the same source unless you also cite another source by the same author. In that case, the author's name and a short title must be used. The first full citation should be followed by a sentence where you explain how you will short title it (e.g. Hereafter cited as Poe, Tale Heart).

4. The pages of your paper should be numbered, including the bibliography pages. The first page of the text should be numbered at the bottom center of the page and subsequent pages in the upper right-hand corner.

5. Your text should be double-spaced with the appropriate margins (1") on both the sides and at the top and bottom of your pages. Quotations of five lines or more are considered BLOCK QUOTATIONS and should be indented and single-spaced. Block quotations in the text should also be separated from the rest of the text by a blank line before and after the quotation.

6. Both the notes and the bibliography entries should be single-spaced within each entry and double-spaced between entries.

7. Begin each paper with a title page that includes the title of your paper, your name, the department name and course number [History 308 (or whatever is the correct number)] and the date of submission. The title page should also be followed by a blank sheet of paper. (See Turabian, Section 1.6 for details.)

8. When typing your paper on a word processor do NOT use right-hand justification. DO USE the superscript key for inserting your footnote numbers into the text.

9. Know the difference between primary and secondary sources, and try to use as many primary sources as possible.

10. Remember that periodicals can be divided into at least three categories -- newspapers, magazines, and scholarly journals. Learn how to use the indexes to get into the information in these three types of periodicals.

11. Spell out numbers under one-hundred and those that begin a sentence.

Preparing Note Entries (Footnotes/Endnotes)

1. Notes should be arranged in numerical order either at the foot of each page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper as a whole (endnotes). A footnote must begin at the bottom of the page on which it is referenced, although it may extend to the bottom of the following page if the note is long (See Turabian, sample 14.43).

2. In the text both footnotes and endnotes should be marked with an Arabic numeral typed slightly above the line (superscript).

3. Note that numbers preceding footnotes themselves are also typed above the line. However, with endnotes, numbers may be either superscript, or typed on the line followed by a period and two spaces.

4. The note numbers, either footnotes or endnotes, should always directly follow the passage to which it refers.

5. The first time a work is mentioned in a note, the entry should include: the author's full name, the title of the work, the specific reference (i.e. volume, if any, and page number), and facts of publication (i.e. place of publication, publisher, date of publication). Subsequent references to the work should be in shortened form.

6. The shortened form includes: a shortened title or, where appropriate, the Latin abbreviation "ibid." and the page number, if needed, should be used. Ibid. is only used if the current note is in the same work as the previous note.

7. If the reference has already been cited, but not in the reference immediately preceding, then there are two options:

A. author's family name, title of book or article, and the specific page reference

B. author's family name and specific page reference, and lists the title of the book or article only when two or more works by the same author are cited.

Examples of Note Entries:

Note: All numbers in bold font should be typed as superscript

Book:

1 John Hope Franklin, George Washington Williams: A Biography (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985), 54.

Editor instead of author:

2. Robert von Hallberg, ed., Canons (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984), 225.

Article in an Online Journal:

33. Mark A. Hlatky et al., "Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial," Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (2002), http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7, 2004).

For other examples, see pages 177-203 in Turabian. All note entries are marked with "N".

Bibliographies

1. Most bibliography entries are arranged in alphabetical order.

2. Unlike the note entries which are indented in the first line, the bibliography entries are flush left, and all subsequent lines are indented five spaces (this format is called "hanging indentation).

3. Bibliography entries also place the family name first followed by a comma and then the first name (i.e. Doe, John).

4. Whereas commas and parentheses are used in a note, periods are used in a bibliographical entry at the end of each main part -- author's name, title of work, and facts of publication. Periodical bibliographical entries do retain the parentheses around the dates of publication when these follow a volume number.

5. Page numbers are only given when the item is a part of a whole work -- a chapter in a book or an article in a periodical.

Examples of Bibliography Entries

Book:

Franklin, John Hope. George Washington Williams: A Biography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

Editor instead of author:

von Hallberg, Robert, ed. Canons. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

Article in a Journal:

Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. "Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial." Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6, 2002), http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7, 2004).

Remember in your bibliography the entries would not be divided into types, and they would be listed alphabetically. For more examples, see pages 177-203 in Turabian. Bibliography entries are marked with "B".

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