Valence Bond Theory Application Essay

Solutions

  1.  

HF: Hydrogen has one electron in the 1s orbital. Flourine has two electrons in the 2s orbital, and five in the 2p orbitals. These can be derived from the electron configurations. We are only interested in the valence electrons, so the lower shell can be ignored. Remember to fill in the orbitals accordingly. The orbitals availiable to bond are Hydrogen's 1s orbital and one of Flourine's 2p orbitals. Thus, the bond must take place between these two orbitals. This is a sigma bond. A bond of this type, or one of similar orientation, such as two s orbitals, are the bonds associated with hybrid orbitals when hybridization takes place.

CO2: C has four valence electrons; two are in 2s and two are in 2p. O has six valence electrons; two in 2s and four in 2p. Notice that there is a double bond. Now, hybridize to explain the bonds. When determining the coordinate number, double bonds and triple bonds count as one bond. Thus, the coordinate number of C is 2 and the corresponding hybridization is sp. The diagram below shows the sp hybridization process for C. Notice that two 2p orbital remains unhybridized. We fill in the hybrid orbitals with two of C's electrons so that C has space available to bond with the two O's. The hybrid orbitals describes two sigma bonds between C and the O's; one 2p orbital from each O is used in this process. Two electrons remain for C, which are allocated to the unhybridized orbitals. Now, C can form the other two bonds for a total of four which is what is expected due to the presence of two double bonds. The unhybridized orbitals overlap O's 2p orbitals and forms what is called a pi bond. There is one pi bond and one sigma bond between C and each O. The lone pairs of the O's are the filled 2s orbital and the final and filled 2p orbital. Thus, a double bond is explained by one sigma bond associated with the hybrid orbitals and a pi bond associated with unhybridized p orbitals. 

C2H2: C has four valence electrons (two in 2s and two in 2p)  and H has one (one in 1s). There is a total of ten valence electrons. From the Lewis structure, one can see that there is a triple bond between the two C's. For each C, one can explain the bonds through sp hybridization (a triple bond and one single bond). This process is similar to CO2. However, in this case, C's available unhybridized 2p orbitals bond together with the unhybridized p orbitals of the other C. Now, there are two pi bonds and one sigma bond between the C's; there is one sigma bond between each C and H bond. Thus, a triple bond is explained by one sigma bond associated with the hybrid orbitals and two pi bonds associated with unhybridized p orbitals.

2. I is the central atom. Usually, the least electronegative atom is the central atom. Drawing the Lewis structure reveals that I can only form one bond. However, with the use of hybridization, I can form more bonds. Showing that is the goal. First, find out how many valence electrons IBr5 has. This is simply derived by adding all of the valence electrons from each atom; all have 7 valence electrons, so (6)(7)=42. Then, use Lewis structure and allocate all of the electrons into the correct places. You will find that the Lewis structure looks like the picture below.

Notice that there is a lone pair. Remember that the number of hybrid orbitals needed is the summation of lone pairs and bonds. This is a total of six; thus a sp3d2 hybridization is needed. This process is shown below. Take note that the lone pair is the only spin paired electrons in the hybrid orbitals. Since the coordinate number is six, then the family shape of this molecule is an octahedral shape. Even the lone pairs are accounted for when hybridization takes place. It is because we used the coordinate number (determined by using Lewis dot structure first) to determiine the type of hybridization that hybridization does indeed give the correct family shape. There are of course exceptions, such as sp2d and sp3. We cannot predict the shape based on hybridization alone for these.

3. The shapes are tetrahedral, trigonal bypyramidal, and octahedral respectively. Not all molecules will have the shape associated with the hybridization type because lone pairs must be taken into account as well. For example, look at problem number two. The coordinate number is six. That tells you that the parent shape is an octahedral. However, the shape of IBr5 will only be that shape if the lone pair was another atom. The parent shape will not always match the actual shape of the molecule. It gives you a place to start and is only true if lone pairs do not exist. "Removing" one bond away from the octahedral shape will give the result of the square-base pyramidal shape.

4. One can solve this problem simply by counting the valence electrons. H has only one electron; it is not paired with any other electron and thus must be paramagnetic. H2 has two valence electrons; thus, those electrons are spin paired and H2 is diamagnetic. NO has eleven valence electrons; it is paramagnetic. In general, if an atom/molecule has an odd number of electrons, then that atom/molecule is paramagnetic. It is diamagnetic if it has an even number of electrons; however, like the case of O2, this does not always work.

5. Valence Bond Theory looks at the interaction between orbitals to describe bonds. It can also be used to derive the shape of the molecule in question, as well as determining whether or not an atom/molecule is diamagnetic or paramagnetic; however Valence Bond Theory is not always reliable. It fails in some cases. One must always remember that this is a theory.

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