Essayists Of The Romantic Period Authors

List of romantics

Brazilian Romanticism[edit]

Colombian Romanticism[edit]

Czech Romanticism[edit]

Dutch Romanticism[edit]

English Romanticism[edit]

  • Samuel Palmer (visual artist)
  • William Blake (painting, engraving, poetry)
  • George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (poetry)
  • John Clare (poetry)
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge (poetry, philosophy, criticism, German scholar)
  • John Constable (painting)
  • Thomas de Quincey (essays, criticism, biography)
  • Ebenezer Elliot (Poet Activist)
  • William Hazlitt (criticism, essays)
  • John Keats (poetry)
  • Charles Lamb (poetry, essays)
  • Mary Shelley (novels)
  • Percy Bysshe Shelley (poetry)
  • Robert Southey (poetry, biography)
  • J. M. W. Turner (painting)
  • William Wordsworth (poetry)
  • Dorothy Wordsworth (diaries)
  • John William Waterhouse (painting, also a Pre-Raphaelite)

Estonian Romanticism[edit]

French Romanticism[edit]

Main article: 19th-century French literature

German Romanticism[edit]

Main article: German Romanticism

  • Caspar David Friedrich (painter)
  • Johannes Brahms (composer)
  • Joseph Görres (writer, essayist)
  • Jakob Grimm (story collector, linguist)
  • Wilhelm Grimm (story collector, linguist)
  • Carl Gustav Carus (painter)
  • Karl Friedrich Lessing (painter)
  • Philipp Otto Runge (painter)
  • Adam Müller (literary critic and political theorist)
  • Novalis (poet, novelist)
  • Joseph von Eichendorff (poet, writer)
  • Friedrich Schlegel (poet, theorist)
  • August Wilhelm Schlegel (poet, translator, theorist)
  • Franz Schubert (composer)
  • Robert Schumann (composer, polemicist)
  • Ludwig Tieck (novelist, translator)
  • Ludwig Uhland (poet, dramatist)
  • E.T.A. Hoffmann (writer, composer)
  • Adolf von Henselt (composer)
  • Zacharias Werner (poet, dramatist)
  • Ludwig van Beethoven (composer)
  • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (novelist, poet, scientist)
  • Richard Wagner (composer)
  • Friedrich Hölderlin (poet)
  • Heinrich Heine (poet)
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (philosopher)
  • Johann Gottlieb Fichte (writer, theorist)
  • Adrian Ludwig Richter (painter)
  • Carl Spitzweg (painter)
  • Eberhard Wächter (painter)
  • Gerhard von Kügelgen (painter)
  • Members of the Nazarene movement (visual artists)
  • Carl Maria von Weber (composer)
  • Felix Mendelssohn (composer)
  • Franz Liszt (composer)
  • Heinrich von Kleist (poet, dramatist, novelist)
  • Friedrich Schleiermacher (theologian, philosopher)
  • Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder (writer)

Irish Romanticism[edit]

Hungarian Romanticism[edit]

Italian Romanticism[edit]

North American Romanticism[edit]

Norwegian Romanticism[edit]

Main article: Norwegian romantic nationalism

Polish Romanticism[edit]

Romanticism in Poland was followed, after the disastrous January 1863 Uprising, by a period known as Positivism.

Portuguese Romanticism[edit]

  • Almeida Garrett (writer, poet, dramatician, journalist)
  • Alexandre Herculano (writer, novelist, poet, journalist, historian)
  • Camilo Castelo Branco (writer, novelist)
  • João de Deus (writer, poet)
  • António Feliciano de Castilho (writer, poet, translator)
  • Soares dos Passos (writer, poet)
  • João de Lemos (writer, poet)
  • José Vianna da Motta (composer and pianist)

Romanian Romanticism[edit]

  • Vasile Alecsandri (poet, playwright)
  • Gheorghe Asachi (poet, short story writer, playwright)
  • Dimitrie Bolintineanu (poet)
  • Cezar Bolliac (poet)
  • George Coşbuc (poet)
  • Dora d'Istria (essayist, travel writer)
  • Mihai Eminescu (a Romantic for part of his career; poet, short story writer, essayist)
  • Nicolae Filimon (novelist and short story writer)
  • Ion Ghica (essayist and memoirist)
  • Andrei Mureşanu (poet)
  • Costache Negruzzi (short story writer)
  • Alexandru Odobescu (short story writer)
  • Bogdan Petriceicu-Hasdeu (historian and playwright)
  • Ion Heliade Rădulescu (poet, essayist)
  • Iosif Vulcan (dramatist, short story writer, essayist, novelist)

Russian Romanticism[edit]

See also: Romanticism § Russia, and Russian literature § Golden Age

Serbian Romanticism[edit]

See also: Serbian literature § Pre-Romanticism

Slovene Romanticism[edit]

Scottish Romanticism[edit]

Main article: Romanticism in Scotland

Spanish Romanticism[edit]

Spanish Romanticism emerged in the years following the Napoleonic Wars, and reached its apex in the 1840s. Much of Spanish Romanticism serves as criticism of contemporary Spanish society, as seen directly in the Articulos de Costumbre (essays on customs/daily life) by Larra. Important literary works in Spanish Romanticism include Larra's essays (each article published separately until 1836), Don Juan Tenorio by Zorrilla (1844), El Estudiante de Salamanca (1840) and Poesias (1840) by Espronceda, and Rimas y Leyendas by Becquer (1871).

Welsh Romanticism[edit]

Other countries[edit]

See also[edit]

External links and references[edit]

Blake, Wordsworth, and Coleridge

Useful as it is to trace the common elements in Romantic poetry, there was little conformity among the poets themselves. It is misleading to read the poetry of the first Romantics as if it had been written primarily to express their feelings. Their concern was rather to change the intellectual climate of the age. William Blake had been dissatisfied since boyhood with the current state of poetry and what he considered the irreligious drabness of contemporary thought. His early development of a protective shield of mocking humour with which to face a world in which science had become trifling and art inconsequential is visible in the satirical An Island in the Moon (written c. 1784–85); he then took the bolder step of setting aside sophistication in the visionary Songs of Innocence (1789). His desire for renewal encouraged him to view the outbreak of the French Revolution as a momentous event. In works such as The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790–93) and Songs of Experience (1794), he attacked the hypocrisies of the age and the impersonal cruelties resulting from the dominance of analytic reason in contemporary thought. As it became clear that the ideals of the Revolution were not likely to be realized in his time, he renewed his efforts to revise his contemporaries’ view of the universe and to construct a new mythology centred not in the God of the Bible but in Urizen, a repressive figure of reason and law whom he believed to be the deity actually worshipped by his contemporaries. The story of Urizen’s rise was set out in The First Book of Urizen (1794) and then, more ambitiously, in the unfinished manuscript Vala (later redrafted as The Four Zoas), written from about 1796 to about 1807.

Blake developed these ideas in the visionary narratives of Milton (1804–08) and Jerusalem (1804–20). Here, still using his own mythological characters, he portrayed the imaginative artist as the hero of society and suggested the possibility of redemption from the fallen (or Urizenic) condition.

William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, meanwhile, were also exploring the implications of the French Revolution. Wordsworth, who lived in France in 1791–92 and fathered an illegitimate child there, was distressed when, soon after his return, Britain declared war on the republic, dividing his allegiance. For the rest of his career, he was to brood on those events, trying to develop a view of humanity that would be faithful to his twin sense of the pathos of individual human fates and the unrealized potentialities in humanity as a whole. The first factor emerges in his early manuscript poems “The Ruined Cottage” and “The Pedlar” (both to form part of the later Excursion); the second was developed from 1797, when he and his sister, Dorothy, with whom he was living in the west of England, were in close contact with Coleridge. Stirred simultaneously by Dorothy’s immediacy of feeling, manifested everywhere in her Journals (written 1798–1803, published 1897), and by Coleridge’s imaginative and speculative genius, he produced the poems collected in Lyrical Ballads (1798). The volume began with Coleridge’s “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,” continued with poems displaying delight in the powers of nature and the humane instincts of ordinary people, and concluded with the meditative “Lines Written a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey,” Wordsworth’s attempt to set out his mature faith in nature and humanity.

His investigation of the relationship between nature and the human mind continued in the long autobiographical poem addressed to Coleridge and later titled The Prelude (1798–99 in two books; 1804 in five books; 1805 in 13 books; revised continuously and published posthumously, 1850). Here he traced the value for a poet of having been a child “fostered alike by beauty and by fear” by an upbringing in sublime surroundings. The Preludeconstitutes the most significant English expression of the Romantic discovery of the self as a topic for art and literature. The poem also makes much of the work of memory, a theme explored as well in the “Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood.” In poems such as “Michael” and “The Brothers,” by contrast, written for the second volume of Lyrical Ballads (1800), Wordsworth dwelt on the pathos and potentialities of ordinary lives.

Coleridge’s poetic development during these years paralleled Wordsworth’s. Having briefly brought together images of nature and the mind in “The Eolian Harp” (1796), he devoted himself to more-public concerns in poems of political and social prophecy, such as “Religious Musings” and “The Destiny of Nations.” Becoming disillusioned in 1798 with his earlier politics, however, and encouraged by Wordsworth, he turned back to the relationship between nature and the human mind. Poems such as “This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison,” “The Nightingale,” and “Frost at Midnight” (now sometimes called the “conversation poems” but collected by Coleridge himself as “Meditative Poems in Blank Verse”) combine sensitive descriptions of nature with subtlety of psychological comment. “Kubla Khan” (1797 or 1798, published 1816), a poem that Coleridge said came to him in “a kind of Reverie,” represented a new kind of exotic writing, which he also exploited in the supernaturalism of “The Ancient Mariner” and the unfinished “Christabel.” After his visit to Germany in 1798–99, he renewed attention to the links between the subtler forces in nature and the human psyche; this attention bore fruit in letters, notebooks, literary criticism, theology, and philosophy. Simultaneously, his poetic output became sporadic. “Dejection: An Ode” (1802), another meditative poem, which first took shape as a verse letter to Sara Hutchinson, Wordsworth’s sister-in-law, memorably describes the suspension of his “shaping spirit of Imagination.”

The work of both poets was directed back to national affairs during these years by the rise of Napoleon. In 1802 Wordsworth dedicated a number of sonnets to the patriotic cause. The death in 1805 of his brother John, who was a captain in the merchant navy, was a grim reminder that, while he had been living in retirement as a poet, others had been willing to sacrifice themselves. From this time the theme of duty was to be prominent in his poetry. His political essayConcerning the Relations of Great Britain, Spain and Portugal…as Affected by the Convention of Cintra (1809) agreed with Coleridge’s periodical The Friend (1809–10) in deploring the decline of principle among statesmen. When The Excursion appeared in 1814 (the time of Napoleon’s first exile), Wordsworth announced the poem as the central section of a longer projected work, The Recluse, “a philosophical Poem, containing views of Man, Nature, and Society.” The plan was not fulfilled, however, and The Excursion was left to stand in its own right as a poem of moral and religious consolation for those who had been disappointed by the failure of French revolutionary ideals.

Both Wordsworth and Coleridge benefited from the advent in 1811 of the Regency, which brought a renewed interest in the arts. Coleridge’s lectures on Shakespeare became fashionable, his playRemorse was briefly produced, and his volume of poems Christabel; Kubla Khan: A Vision; The Pains of Sleep was published in 1816. Biographia Literaria (1817), an account of his own development, combined philosophy and literary criticism in a new way and made an enduring and important contribution to literary theory. Coleridge settled at Highgate in 1816, and he was sought there as “the most impressive talker of his age” (in the words of the essayist William Hazlitt). His later religious writings made a considerable impact on Victorian readers.

Other poets of the early Romantic period

In his own lifetime, Blake’s poetry was scarcely known. Sir Walter Scott, by contrast, was thought of as a major poet for his vigorous and evocative verse narratives The Lay of the Last Minstrel (1805) and Marmion (1808). Other verse writers were also highly esteemed. The Elegiac Sonnets (1784) of Charlotte Smith and the Fourteen Sonnets (1789) of William Lisle Bowles were received with enthusiasm by Coleridge. Thomas Campbell is now chiefly remembered for his patriotic lyrics such as “Ye Mariners of England” and “The Battle of Hohenlinden” (1807) and for the critical preface to his Specimens of the British Poets (1819); Samuel Rogers was known for his brilliant table talk (published 1856, after his death, as Recollections of the Table-Talk of Samuel Rogers), as well as for his exquisite but exiguous poetry. Another admired poet of the day was Thomas Moore, whose Irish Melodies began to appear in 1808. His highly coloured narrative Lalla Rookh: An Oriental Romance (1817) and his satirical poetry were also immensely popular. Charlotte Smith was not the only significant woman poet in this period. Helen Maria Williams’sPoems (1786), Ann Batten Cristall’s Poetical Sketches (1795), Mary Robinson’sSappho and Phaon (1796), and Mary Tighe’s Psyche (1805) all contain notable work.

Robert Southey was closely associated with Wordsworth and Coleridge and was looked upon as a prominent member, with them, of the “Lake school” of poetry. His originality is best seen in his ballads and his nine “English Eclogues,” three of which were first published in the 1799 volume of his Poems with a prologue explaining that these verse sketches of contemporary life bore “no resemblance to any poems in our language.” His “Oriental” narrative poems Thalaba the Destroyer (1801) and The Curse of Kehama (1810) were successful in their own time, but his fame is based on his prose work—the Life of Nelson (1813), the History of the Peninsular War (1823–32), and his classic formulation of the children’s tale “The Three Bears.”

George Crabbe wrote poetry of another kind: his sensibility, his values, much of his diction, and his heroic couplet verse form belong to the 18th century. He differs from the earlier Augustans, however, in his subject matter, concentrating on realistic, unsentimental accounts of the life of the poor and the middle classes. He shows considerable narrative gifts in his collections of verse tales (in which he anticipates many short-story techniques) and great powers of description. His antipastoral The Village appeared in 1783. After a long silence, he returned to poetry with The Parish Register (1807), The Borough (1810), Tales in Verse (1812), and Tales of the Hall (1819), which gained him great popularity in the early 19th century.

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